Data Transmission Medias
Transmission media is the way in which information is transmitted from one location to another. It is sometimes referred to as communication media as well. There are two basic types of transmission media in computer communications. They are Guided media and Unguided media.
Guided media refers to the transmission of broadcast information within a physical boundary. The medium signals usually pass through a physical pathways such as wired transmission. Some of the examples of guided media are twisted pair cable, coaxial cable and fiber optic cable.
- Twisted Pair Cable
Twisted pair cable is a type of cable consisting of a pair of insulated wires twisted together. It is a cable type used in telecommunication for very long time. Cable twisting helps to reduce noise pickup from outside sources and cross talk on multi-pair cables. Twisted pair cable is good for transferring balanced differential signals. There are two twisted pair types: shielded and unshielded. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) has a fine wire mesh surrounding the wires to protect the transmission. Unshielded Twisted Pair cable is a cable that is made of one or more twisted pairs of wires and is not surrounded by a metal shield.
- Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cable, or coax is a type of cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tabular insulating layer, surrounded by a tabular conducting shield. Many coaxial cables also have an insulating outer sheath or jacket. The term coaxial comes from the inner conductor and the outer shield sharing a geometric axis. Coaxial cable is used as a transmission line for radio frequency signals. Coaxial cable also provides protection of the signal from external electromagnetic interference.
- Fiber Optic Cable
Fiber optic cable is a technology that uses glass threads to transmit data. It consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves. Fiber optic cables carry communication signals using pulses of light. It can easily carry data at more than a billion bits per second.It is immune to the electromagnetic interference and offers greater bandwidth. It is a very secure transmission medium.
Unguided media is the wireless media. it simply transports electromagnetic waves without using any physical conductor. Signals are normally broadcasted through the air and thus are available to any one who has the device capable of receiving them. Unguided signals can be traveled from source to the destination in several ways. Some of the unguided media are infrared transmission, radio transmission and microwave transmission.
- Infrared Transmission
Infrared is a wireless mobile technology used for device communication over short ranges. IR(Infrared) requires line of sight. It has a short transmission range and is unable to penetrate walls. IR transceivers are quite cheap and serve as short-range communication solutions.
- Radio Transmission
Radio is the wireless transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic radiation of a frequency significantly below that of visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 3 kHz to 300 GHz. These waves are called radio waves. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space.
- Microwave Transmission
Microwave transmission refers to the transmission of microwave signals across a microwave link. The link consists of radio antennas that are at the top of the towers. Microwave communication is known as a form of “line of sight” communication, because there must be nothing obstructing the transmission of data between these towers for signals to be properly sent and received.
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