The evolution of internet has taken place over many years. In 1969, the Department of Defense (DoD) of the United States of America started a network called ARPAnet. It began with one computer in California and three in Utah. Later, to share the software and hardware resources, the military allowed universities to join the network, from where the students caught up with it and developed much of the software, giving birth to the very popular internet.
The internet is becoming an integral part of our everyday lives. Today’s Internet is a constantly evolving tool, that not only contains an amazing variety of information, but also provides new ways of accessing, interacting and connecting with people and content. The internet is the largest computer network in the world, connecting millions of computer. It spreads across the globe and consists of countless networks and computers, allowing millions of people to share the information. It is a combination of several media technologies and an electronic version of newspapers, magazines, books, catalogs, bulletin boards, and much more. It can be called mother of all networks.
Features Of Internet
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web is the universe of network-accessible information, the embodiment of human knowledge. The World Wide Web began as a networked information project at CERN, where Tim Berners-Lee, now Director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) , developed a vision of the project. The Web has a body of software, and a set of protocols and conventions. Through the use hypertext and multimedia techniques, the web is easy for anyone to roam, browse, and contribute to.
Electronic Mail (e-mail) is one of the most popular services of the internet. Electronic mail is the transmission of message over communication networks. The messages can be notes entered from the keyboard or electronic files stored on disk. The first e-mail was sent by Ray Tomlinson in 1971. A computer, network connection and an e-mail address are needed for using e-mail.
Advantages of an E-mail
The advantages of an electronic mail are as follows:
- E-mail enables speedy communication.
- E-mail provides the receiver an option to respond immediately.
- E-mail is a low cost way to transmit messages.
- E-mail message are always easy to locate.
Disadvantages of an E-mail
The disadvantages of an electronic mail are as follows:
- Lack of computer knowledge among people, so not sure all receiving parties use email system.
- Unwanted SPAM emails.
- Illegal contents including VIRUS damages end user systems, data and reputation.
Search engines are the largest of the findings aids and often search the full text of many web pages. The resources found are often numerous, numbering in the millions, though not always well selected for quality or subject relevance. Search engines use spiders or robots, to continually comb vast domains of internet documents for information. Resources found are placed in the search engine’s databases which are made available for searching by the user. Users can connect to a search engine site and enter keywords to query the index. The best matches, whether Web pages or other internet resources, are hen returned as hits. Search engines vary according to the size of the index, the frequency of updating the index, the search options, the speed of returning a result set, the result of presentation, the relevancy of the items included in a result set, and the overall ease of use.
File Transfer Protocol
FTP allows you to transfer files between two computers on the internet. FTP is a simple network protocol based on Internet Protocol and also a term used when referring to the process of copying files when using FTP technology.
To transfer files with FTP, you use a program often called the client. An FTP client program initiates a connection to a remote computer using FTP server software. after the connection is established the client can choose to send and receive copies of files, singly or in groups. To connect to an FTP server, a client requires a username and password as set by the administrator of the server. Many public FTP archives follow a special convention to accept a username of “anonymous”. FTP supports two mode of data transfer: plain text (ASCII), and binary. You set the mode in the FTP client. A common error when using FTP is attempting to transfer a binary file while in text mode, causing the transferred file to be usable.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
Websites also provide a facility called FAQ, where the most frequently queried and basic features of a particular current site are listed in the form of questions and answers. The visitors to the site also have the liberty of posting their personal query on the site, if it has not been answered in the FAQ. They are written on wide variety of topics and are usually the most up to date sources for specialized information.
Online chat may refer to any kind of communication over the internet that offers a real time transmission of text messages from sender to receiver. Chat messages are generally short in order to enable other participants to respond quickly. The first online chat system was called Talkomatic, created by Doug Brown and David R. Wooley in 1947 on the PLATO system at the University of Illinois. Websites offering these facilities are called chat rooms. A chat room is a virtual room where visitors can meet others and share ideas on a particular subject. One of the most popular chat programs is ICQ.
Electronic Commerce is a term used to describe business that is conducted over the internet using any of the applications that rely on the internet. Electronic commerce can be between two business transmitting fund, goods, services and data between a business and customer. Companies set up their web sites providing details on the product and services offered by them. The transaction is done through credit cards. Bank and other financial establishments are working on various methods, protocols and standards to enable such transactions over the web. Since the transaction involves credit card numbers, security is of utmost importance. Various agencies have implemented a reliable security system for a trustworthy electronic commerce solution over the web.
Newsgroup is a system of discussion group in the internet which allows users to indulge in discussion with people anywhere in the world on any subject. Anybody can subscribe to newsgroup and can read the message posted on them. Users can also post their own message or article to members in the group. Topics for discussion for newsgroups are wide and varied. It is a typical discussion group. Special programs like Newsreader are available to red the articles posted by the newsgroup members.
E-Learning (Electronic Learning)
e-learning is learning that takes place in an electronically simulated environments. e-learning, web based training, internet based training and computer based training are the next generation instruction methods being developed today. With e-learning, users can immerse themselves in a three dimensional environment to further enhance their learning experience. Moreover, e-learning can be done anywhere and anytime as long as the user has the proper hardware. e-learning can be done using an Internet connection, a network and Intranet, or a storage disk. It uses a variety of media like audio, text, virtual environments, video and animations.
Electronic baking also known as e-banking, virtual banking and online banking, is a service that allows customers to access their bank information, conduct financial transactions, make deposits, withdrawals and pay bills through the internet without having to physically visit their banks. It provides the convenience of accessing banking facilities from the comfort of their home or office.
It uses the internet as the delivery channel by which to conduct banking activity, for example, transferring funds, paying bills, viewing checking and savings account balances, paying mortgages, and purchasing financial instruments and certificate deposits. It uses computer and electronic technology in place of checks and other paper transactions. They are initiated through devices like cards or codes that let you, or those you authorize, access your account. Many financial institutions use ATM or debit cards and personal Identification Numbers (PINs) for this purpose.
Computer Networking Concepts
A computer networking is a group of computer systems and other computing hardware devices that are linked together through communication channels to facilitate communication and resource-sharing among a wide range of users. For example, a business might use a computer network connected via cables for wireless transmission in order to gain access to a common server or to share programs, files and other information. Computer network offers the following advantages. They are as follows:
a. Computer network facilitates communication via email, video conferencing, instant messaging, etc.
b. Computer network enables multiple users to share a single hardware device like a printer or scanner.
c. Computer network enables file sharing across the network.
d. Computer network make information easier to access and maintain among network users.
e. Computer network allows for the sharing of software or operating programs on remote systems.
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