To understand Data communication, we’ve to know about communication first. Communication is a two way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange information, news, ideas and feelings but also create and share meaning. In general, communication is a means of connecting people or places. Senders and receivers are of course vital in communication. A message or communication is sent by the sender through a communication channel to a receiver, or to a multiple receivers. The sender must encode the message into a form that is appropriate to the communication channel, and the receiver then decodes the message to understand its meaning and significance.
Data Communication refers to the electronic transfer of information between computers. Data Communication have become a major focus of the computer industry. It is the transmission of electronic data over some media. The media may be cables, microwaves. The four basic elements are needed for any communication system.
The computer or device that is used for sending data is called sender, source or transmitter. In modern digital communication system, the source is usually a computer.
The means through which data is sent from one location to another is called transmission medium. If the receiver and transmitter are within a building, a wire connects them. If they are located at different locations, they may be connected by telephone lines, fiber optics or microwaves.
The device or computer that receives the data is called receiver. The receiver can be a computer, printer or a fax machine.
There are rules under which data transmission takes place between sender and receiver. These rules include guidelines that regulates the following characteristics of a network: access method, allowed physical typologies, types of cabling, and speed of data transfer.
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