Data Communication And Data Transmission

What Is Data Transmission?
What Is Data Transmission?

Data Communication

To understand Data communication, we’ve to know about communication first. Communication is a two way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange information, news, ideas and feelings but also create and share meaning. In general, communication is a means of connecting people or places. Senders and receivers are of course vital in communication. A message or communication is sent by the sender through a communication channel to a receiver, or to a multiple receivers. The sender must encode the message into a form that is appropriate to the communication channel, and the receiver then decodes the message to understand its meaning and significance.

Data Communication refers to the electronic transfer of information between computers. Data Communication have become a major focus of the computer industry. It is the transmission of electronic data over some media. The media may be cables, microwaves. The four basic elements are needed for any communication system.

Define Data Communication & It’s Elements.
  1. Sender
    The computer or device that is used for sending data is called sender, source or transmitter. In modern digital communication system, the source is usually a computer.
  2. Medium
    The means through which data is sent from one location to another is called transmission medium. If the receiver and transmitter are within a building, a wire connects them. If they are located at different locations, they may be connected by telephone lines, fiber optics or microwaves.
  3. Receiver
    The device or computer that receives the data is called receiver. The receiver can be a computer, printer or a fax machine.
  4. Protocols
    There are rules under which data transmission takes place between sender and receiver. These rules include guidelines that regulates the following characteristics of a network: access method, allowed physical typologies, types of cabling, and speed of data transfer.

Data Transmission

Data may be transferred from one device to another by means of some communication media. The electromagnetic or light waves that transfer data from, one device to another device in encoded form are called signals. Data transmissions across the network can occur in two forms i.e. 1. Analog Signal & 2. Digital Signal.

What Is Data Transmission?
What Is Data Transmission?

Analog Signal
The transfer of data in the form of electrical signals or continuous waves is called analog signal or analog data transmission. An analog signal is measured in volts and its frequency in hertz (Hz).
Advantages of Analog Signal:
a. It allows for multiple transmission across the cable.
b. Suffers less from attenuation.

Disadvantages of Analog Signal:
a. Suffers from EMI. Electromagnetic interference  ( or EMI, also called radio-frequency interference or RFI) is a disturbance which affects an electrical circuit due to either electromagnetic induction or electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source.
b. Can only be transmitted in one direction without sophisticated equipment.

Digital Signal
The transfer of data in the form of digit is called digital signal or digital data transmission. Digital signals consist of binary digits 0 & 1. Electrical pulses are used to represent binary digits. Data transmission between computers is in the form of digital signals.

Advantages of Digital Signal:
a. Equipment is cheaper and simpler than analog equipment.
b. Signals can be transmitted on a cable bidirectional.
c. Digital signals suffer less from EMI.

Disadvantages of Digital Signal:
a. Only one signal can be sent at a time.
b. Digital Signals suffer from attenuation.

What is Data Communication?
Data Communication refers to the electronic transfer of information between computers. Data Communication have become a major focus of the computer industry. It is the transmission of electronic data over some media. The media may be cables, microwaves. The four basic elements are needed for any communication system.

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