Computer Number System
Number system is a set of values used to represent different quantities. The digital computer represents all kinds of data and information in binary numbers. It includes audio, graphics, video, text and numbers. The total number of digits used in a number system is called its base or radix. The base is written after the number as subscript. Some important number systems are as follows:
- Decimal Number System
The decimal number system consists of ten digits from 0 to 9. These digits can be used to represent any numeric value. The base of decimal number system is 10. It is the most widely used number system. The value represented by individual digit depends on weight and position of the digit.
Each number in this system consists of digits which are located at different positions. The position of first digit towards left side of the decimal point is 0. The position of second digit towards left side of the decimal point is 1. Similarly, the position of first digit towards right side of decimal point is -1. The position of second digit towards right side of decimal point is -2 and so on.
The value of the number is determined by multiplying the digits with the weight of their position and adding the results. This method is known as expansion method. The rightmost digit of number has the lowest weight. This digit is called Least Significant Digit (LSD). The leftmost digit of a number has the highest weight. This digit is called Most Significant Digit (MSD). The digit 7 in the number 724 is most significant digit and 4 is the least significant digit.
- Binary Number System
Digital computer represents all kinds of data and information in the binary system. Binary number system consists of two digits 0 and 1. Its base is 2. Each digit or bit in binary number system can be 0 or 1. A combination of binary numbers may be used to represent different quantities like 1001. The weight of each position is a power of 2.
- Octal Number System
Octal number system consists of eight digits from 0 to 7. The base of octal system is 8. Each digit position in this system represents a power of 8. Any digit in this system is always less than 8. Octal number system is used as a shorthand representation of long binary numbers. The number 6418 is not valid in this number system as 8 is not a valid digit.
- Hexadecimal Number System
The hexadecimal number system consists of 16 digits from 0 to 9 and A to F. The alphabets A to F represent decimal numbers from 10 to 15. The base of this number system is 16. Each digit position in hexadecimal system represents a power of 16. The number 76416 is valid hexadecimal number. This number system provides shortcut method to represent long binary numbers.
Computer ethics deals with the procedures, values and practices that govern the process of consuming computing technology and its related disciplines without damaging or violating the moral values and beliefs of any individuals, organization or entity. Computer ethics is a concept in ethics that addresses the ethical issue and constraints that arise from the sue of computers, and how they can be mitigated or prevented.
The computer ethics institute in Washington DC, has proposed the ten commandments of computer ethics.
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