Definition of AI
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the part of computer science which mainly concerns with designing intelligent computer systems. In other words, AI is a branch of science, which deals with helping machines, finds solutions to complex problems in a more human like fashion. Artificial Intelligence is generally associated with Computer Science, but it has many important links with other fields such as Psychology, Biology, Math, Cognition, Philosophy and many others.
Ethical Aspects of AI
Ethical aspects of AI is primarily concerned with the researcher who are able to build machines with intellectual capabilities that could challenge the mankind. It addressed a number of moral issues and legal issues because of unexpected consequences, danger and potential misuse of technology. It also considers the way in which AI may be used to benefit humanity. As we’ve have human rights in the same way there also exists robots rights which are more obligations of society towards its machines, similar to human rights or animal rights. Such as human and animal right, the AI right might include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression and equality before the law.
Autonomous robots and computer programs may be able to make choices and plan actions own their own, without the consent of their programmers or the instructions of their owners. As these machines gets self reliable, they may begin to behave ethically. Issac Asimov considered the issue in the 1950 in his book I, Robot. At the insistence of his editor John W. Campbell Jr., he proposed the Three Laws of Robotics to govern artificially intelligent systems.
The three laws of Robotics by John W. Campbell Jr. are as follows. A Robot:
- May not injure a human being or allow a human being to come to harm.
- Must obey the orders given by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
- A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.
Components of AI
Different disciples contributed their ideas, viewpoint and techniques in order to layout the foundation of AI, which acts as components of AI. Some major contribution of various disciplines are as given below:
Artificial Intelligence introduces the concept of logic and methods off reasoning and studying the mind as physical system. It creates the foundation of learning, language and rationality. It also expresses knowledge based action to be embedded into machine to act with AI.
It introduces the concepts of formal representation of facts and proof, algorithms, computation and reasoning with uncertain information.
It introduces the concepts of formal theory of rational decision.
It introduces the concepts of mental activity which can be used in computers/machines.
Artificial Intelligence introduces the concepts of brain as information processing device and phenomenon of perception and sensory motor control.
It introduces the concepts of knowledge representation and grammar and how does language relate to thought.
- Control Theory and Cybernetics
It introduces the concepts of designing the system that maximize an objective function over time. This is roughly similar to the concepts of AI that behave optimally. It describes how artifacts can operate under their own control. That is, it introduces the concept of self controlling machine.
- Computer Science and Engineering
This component introduces the concept of hardware, software and operating system. Apart from this, it also discusses the programming languages and tools used in AI.
Applications Or Uses of AI
The potential applications of Artificial Intelligence are abundant. They can be used in military for various operations, to the entertainment industry for computer games and robotic pets. Let’s also not forget big establishments dealing with huge amounts of information such as hospitals, banks and insurances, which can use AI to predict customer behavior and detect trends. Over plenty of uses, below are some of the major uses of AI.
- Speech Recognition
In the 1990s, speech recognition reached a practical level. United Airlines replaced its keyboard tree for flight information of its service users. It is quiet convenient. On the other hand, while the computer can work on speech, most users have rolled back to the traditional keyboard and the mouse as still more convenient.
- Understanding Natural Language
Parsing sentences is not enough either. The computer has to be provided with an ability to understand the language of its creators. Which simplifies the communication between AI and human to understand what the text is about.
- Computer Vision
The world is composed of three dimensional objects, but thee inputs to the human eye and computers TV cameras are two dimensional. Some useful programs can work solely in to dimensions, but full computer vision requires partial three dimensional information that is not just a set of two dimensional information directly, and they are not good as what humans evidently use.
Although industrial robots due to it’s cool features and fancy designs to date have been expensive. But the robot hardware can be cheap: Radio Shack sells a working robot arm and hand for $14.95. Therefore, the limiting factor in application of robotics is not the cost of robot hardware itself. The basic need is the intelligence and perception to tell robot effectors what to do.
- Symbolic Mathematics
Symbolic mathematics refers to manipulation of formulas, rather than doing arithmetic on numeric values. Symbolic manipulation programs of the AI will be very much important component of scientific research and engineering workstations in coming days.
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